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Salamanders

Salamanders are vertebrate animals that make up one of the most recognizable groups of amphibians found throughout the world. Their lizard-like appearance may often mislead people into thinking that they are reptiles, but they do spend part of their lives in water, which classifies them as amphibians. Depending on species, salamanders can breathe through lungs, their permeable skin, or through special membranes in their mouth.

Most species are about a few inches long, though some can grow up to 5-6 feet, with the Chinese giant salamander being considered the largest. Below is a list of all the extant types, except those in the Salamandridae or true salamander family, which are known as newts in a slightly contradictory way.



    Giant salamanders (Family Cryptobranchidae)

    Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus)

    Asiatic salamanders (Family Hynobiidae)

    Longdong stream salamander (Batrachuperus londongensis) Alpine stream salamander (Batrachuperus tibetanus) Taibai stream salamander (Batrachuperus taibaiensis)
    Western Chinese mountain salamander (Batrachuperus pinchonii) Chiala mountain salamander (Batrachuperus karlschmidti) Yenyuan stream salamander (Batrachuperus yenyuanensis)
    Alishan salamander (Hynobius arisanensis) Amji’s salamander (Hynobius amjiensis) Odaigahara salamander (Hynobius boulengeri)
    Abe’s salamander (Hynobius abei) Guabangshan salamander (Hynobius guabangshanensis) Oita salamander (Hynobius dunni)
    Formosan salamander (Hynobius formosanus) Chinese salamander (Hynobius chinensis) Taiwan lesser salamander (Hynobius fuca)
    Akaishi salamander (Hynobius katoi) Hida salamander (Hynobius kimurae) Korean salamander (Hynobius leechii)
    Tōhoku salamander (Hynobius lichenatus) Hakuba salamander (Hynobius hidamontanus) Liaoning salamander (Hynobius mantschuriensis)
    Buchi salamander (Hynobius naevius) Xingan salamander (Hynobius maoershanensis) Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens)
    Oki salamander (Hynobius okiensis) Japanese clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus) Jeju salamander (Hynobius quelpaertensis)
    Ezo salamander (Hynobius retardatus) Amber salamander (Hynobius stejnegeri) Tokyo salamander (Hynobius tokyoensis)
    Sonan’s salamander (Hynobius sonani) Hokuriku salamander (Hynobius takedai) Kori salamander (Hynobius yangi)
    Turkestanian salamander (Hynobius turkestanicus) Yunan salamander (Hynobius yunanicus) Tsushima salamander (Hynobius tsuensis)
    Yiwu salamander (Hynobius yiwuensis) Tsinpa salamander (Liua tsinpaensis) Wushan salamander (Liua shihi)
    Japanese clawed salamander (Onychodactylus japonicus) Fischer’s clawed salamander (Onychodactylus fischeri) Shangcheng stout salamander (Pachyhynobius shangchengensis)
    Paghman stream salamander (Paradactylodon mustersi) Gorgan salamander (Paradactylodon gorganensis) Persian brook salamander (Paradactylodon persicus)
    Kuankuoshui salamander (Pseudohynobius kuankuoshuiensis) Puxiong salamander (Pseudohynobius puxiongensis) Guizhou salamander (Pseudohynobius guizhouensis)
    Jinfo Mountain salamander (Pseudohynobius jinfo) Yellow-spotted salamander (Pseudohynobius flavomaculatus) Shuicheng salamander (Pseudohynobius shuichengensis)
    Primorye newt (Salamandrella tridactyla) Siberian salamander (Salamandrella kyserlingii) Central Asian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus)

    Mole Salamanders (Family Ambystomatidae)

    Jefferson salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense)
    Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Mountain stream salamander (Ambystoma altamirani) Streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri)
    Blunt-headed salamander (Ambystoma amblycephalum) Delicate-skinned salamander (Ambystoma bombypellum) Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi)
    Yellow-peppered salamander (Ambystoma flavipiperatum) Frosted flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) Northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile)
    Blue-spotted salamander (Ambystoma laterale) Granular salamander (Ambystoma granulosum) Tremblay’s salamander (Ambystoma tremblayi)
    Lake Patzcuaro salamander (Ambystoma dumerilii) Leora’s salamander (Ambystoma leorae) Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) ― Subspecies: Santa Cruz long-toed salamander
    Lake Lerma salamander (Ambystoma lermaense) Silvery salamander (Ambystoma platineum) Mabee’s salamander (Ambystoma mabeei)
    Ringed salamander (Ambystoma annulatum) Spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) Michoacan stream salamander (Ambystoma rivulare)
    Barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) Mole salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum)
    Puerto Hondo stream salamander (Ambystoma ordinarium) Durango salamander (Ambystoma silvense) Tarahumara salamander (Ambystoma rosaceum)
    Anderson’s salamander (Ambystoma andersoni) Small-mouth salamander (Ambystoma texanum) Plateau tiger salamander (Ambystoma velasci)
    Taylor’s salamander (Ambystoma taylori)

    Amphiumas or Congo eels (Family Amphiumidae)

    Two-toed amphiuma            (Amphiuma means) One-toed amphiuma            (Amphiuma pholeter) Three-toed amphiuma            (Amphiuma tridactylum)

    Pacific Giant Salamanders (Family Dicamptodontidae)

    Coastal giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) Cope’s giant salamander (Dicamptodon copei) Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus)
    California giant salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus)

    Lungless salamanders (Family Plethodontidae)

    Alberch’s salamander (Bolitoglossa alberchi) Alvarado’s salamander (Bolitoglossa alvaradoi) Peter’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa adspersa)
    Brame’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa bramei) Nauta salamander (Bolitoglossa altamazonica) Two-lined climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa biseriata)
    Coal-black salamander (Bolitoglossa anthracina) Cataguana salamander (Bolitoglossa cataguana) Carabobo climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa borburata)
    Orphan salamander (Bolitoglossa capitana) Celaque climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa celaque) Cloud forest salamander (Bolitoglossa carri)
    Chinanteca salamander (Bolitoglossa chinanteca) Cerro Pando salamander (Bolitoglossa compacta) Hotel Zaracay salamander (Bolitoglossa chica)
    Millville Climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa cerroensis) La Loma salamander (Bolitoglossa colonnea) Conant’s salamander (Bolitoglossa conanti)
    Camp Sasardi salamander (Bolitoglossa cuna) El Cope giant salamander (Bolitoglossa copia) Monte Escondido salamander (Bolitoglossa decora)
    Rio Santa Rosa salamander (Bolitoglossa digitigrada) Dunn’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa dunni) Quebrada Valverde salamander (Bolitoglossa diminuta)
    Oak forest salamander (Bolitoglossa cuchumatana) Tapanti climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa epimela) Yellow-legged climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa flavimembris)
    Doflein’s salamander (Bolitoglossa dofleini) El Cusuco salamander (Bolitoglossa diaphora) Franklin’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa franklini)
    Ecuadorian climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa equatoriana) Guaramacal salamander (Bolitoglossa guaramacalensis) Engelhardt’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa engelhardti)
    Yellow-belly climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa flaviventris) Gómez’s web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa gomezi) Hartweg’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa hartwegi)
    Coban climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa helmrichi) Winter climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa hiemalis) Rio Quiri salamander (Bolitoglossa gracilis)
    Paramo Frontino salamander (Bolitoglossa hypacra) Camron climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa lignicolor) Guerreran climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa hermosa)
    Lozano’s salamander (Bolitoglossa lozanoi) Holy-Mountain salamander (Bolitoglossa heiroreias) Jackson’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa jacksoni)
    Lincoln’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa lincolni) Magnificent web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa magnifica) Longest climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa longissima)
    Finca Chibigui salamander (Bolitoglossa medemi) Oaxacan climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa macrinii) Crater salamander (Bolitoglossa marmorea)
    Mombacho salamander (Bolitoglossa mombachoensis) Mexican climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa mexicana) Cope’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa morio)
    Meliana climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa meliana) San Gil climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa nicefori) Dwarf climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa minutula)
    Cordillera central salamander (Bolitoglossa nigrescens) Banana salamander (Bolitoglossa occidentalis) Atoyac web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa oaxacensis)
    Zarciadero web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa oresbia) Muller’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa mulleri) Culata climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa orestes)
    Amazon climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa palmata) Tapantí giant salamander (Bolitoglossa obscura) O’donnell’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa odonnelli)
    Red-footed climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa pesrubra) Para climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa paraensis) Medellin climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa phalarosoma)
    Pandi climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa pandi) Broadfoot climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa platydactyla) Ramos’ climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa ramosi)
    Pygmy web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa pygmaea) Peruvian climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa peruviana) Pijol salamander (Bolitoglossa porrasorum)
    Robust climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa robusta) Robinson’s web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa robisoni) Northern banana salamander (Bolitoglossa rufescens)
    Rilett’s climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa riletti) Long-nosed climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa rostrata) Salvin’s salamander (Bolitoglossa salvinii)
    Silverstone’s salamander (Bolitoglossa silverstonei) Shadowy web-footed salamander (Bolitoglossa sombra) Azulita salamander (Bolitoglossa spongai)
    Savage’s salamander (Bolitoglossa savagei) Cukra climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa striatula) Northwestern climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa sima)
    Cocle salamander (Bolitoglossa schizodactyla) Cordillera Talamanca salamander (Bolitoglossa sooyorum) La Palma salamander (Bolitoglossa subpalmata)
    Stuart’s salamander (Bolitoglossa stuarti) Taylor’s salamander (Bolitoglossa taylori) Tatama climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa tatamae)
    Yarumal climbing salamander (Bolitoglossa vallecula) Cerro Pital salamander (Bolitoglossa synoria) Walker’s salamander (Bolitoglossa walkeri)
    Zapotec salamander (Bolitoglossa zapoteca) Veracruz salamander (Bolitoglossa veracrucis) Zacapa salamander (Bolitoglossa zacapensis)
    Yucatán salamander (Bolitoglossa yucatana) Tico salamander (Bolitoglossa tica) Finca Chiblac salamander (Bradytriton silus)
    El Chico salamander (Chiropterotriton chico) Atzalan golden salamander (Chiropterotriton aureus) El Cielo salamander (Chiropterotriton cieloensis)
    Arboreal splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton arboreus) Gristle-headed splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton chondrostega) Common splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton chiropterus)
    Dwarf splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton dimidiatus) Bigfoot splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton magnipes) Cave splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton mosaueri)
    Pygmy splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton lavae) Graceful splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton cracens) Sistema Purificación salamander (Chiropterotriton infernalis)
    Toothy splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton multidentatus) Chignahuapan splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton orculus) Terrestrial splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton terrestris)
    Miquihuana splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton miquihuanus) Primeval splayfoot salamander (Chiropterotriton priscus) Cloud forest salamander from Cofre de Perote (Chiropterotriton nubilus)
    Sierra Juarez hidden salamander (Cryptotriton adelos) Cortes salamander (Cryptotriton nasalis) Alvarez del Toro’s hidden salamander (Cryptotriton alvarezdeltoroi)
    Baja Verapaz salamander (Cryptotriton veraepacis) Wake’s hidden salamander (Cryptotriton wakei) Sierra de las Minas hidden salamander (Cryptotriton sierraminensis)
    Monzon’s hidden salamander (Cryptotriton monzoni) Longnose bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton megarhinus) Common bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton bromeliacius)
    Guatemalan bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton rabbi) Cuchumatanas bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton cuchumatanus) Xolocalca bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton xolocalcae)
    Santa Barbara bromeliad salamander (Dendrotriton sanctibarbarus) Monteverde moss salamander (Nototriton gamezi) Yoro salamander (Nototriton barbouri)
    Volcan Cacao moss salamander (Nototriton guanacaste) Cerro Pozo de Agua moss salamander (Nototriton brodiei) Isla Bonita moss salamander (Nototriton abscondens)
    Plantanillo Gorge salamander (Nototriton major) Cerro de Emmedio moss salamander (Nototriton lignicola) Santa Barbara moss salamander (Nototriton limnospectator)
    La Estrella salamander (Nototriton picadoi) Stuart’s moss salamander (Nototriton stuarti) Richard’s moss salamander (Nototriton richardi)
    Tapanti moss salamander (Nototriton tapanti) Cerro Saslaya moss salamander (Nototriton saslaya) Long-limbed salamander (Nyctanolis pernix)
    Columbian worm salamander (Oedipina parvipes) Cartago worm salamander (Oedipina altura) Limon worm salamander (Oedipina alfaroi)
    Gamboa worm salamander (Oedipina complex) Collared worm salamander (Oedipina collaris) White-crowned worm salamander (Oedipina elongata)
    Allen’s worm salamander (Oedipina alleni) La Fortuna worm salamander (Oedipina gephyra) Los Diamantes worm salamander (Oedipina carablanca)
    Costa Rican worm salamander (Oedipina cyclocauda) Maritime worm salamander (Oedipina maritima) Cerro Pando worm salamander (Oedipina grandis)
    El Empalme worm salamander (Oedipina paucidentata) Gustavo worm salamander (Oedipina fortunensis) Slender worm salamander (Oedipina gracilis)
    Pacific worm salamander (Oedipina pacificensis) Chimaltenango worm salamander (Oedipina ignea) Stuart’s worm salamander (Oedipina stuarti)
    False Cienega Colorado worm salamander (Oedipina pseudouniformis) Quarry worm salamander (Oedipina poelzi) Savage’s worm salamander (Oedipina savagei)
    Tomas’ worm salamander (Oedipina tomasi) Taylor’s worm salamander (Oedipina taylori) Cienega colorado worm salamander (Oedipina uniformis)
    Narrow-footed worm salamander (Oedipina stenopodia) Townsend’s dwarf salamander (Parvimolge townsendi) False brook salamanders (all species in the genus Pseudoeurycea)
    Four-toed salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum) Golden thorius (Thorius aureus) Acultzingo minute salamander (Thorius dubitus)
    Northern minute salamander (Thorius boreas) Grand minute salamander (Thorius grandis) Arboreal minute salamander (Thorius arboreus)
    Atoyac minute salamander (Thorius infernalis) Sierra Juarez salamander (Thorius adelos) Orizaba minute salamander (Thorius lunaris)
    Zoquitlan pigmy salamander (Thorius maxillabrochus) MacDougall’s minute salamanders (Thorius macdougalli) Vista Hermosa minute salamander (Thorius insperatus)
    La Hoya minute salamander (Thorius minydemus) Upper Cerro minute salamander (Thorius narisovalis) Oaxacan minute salamander (Thorius minutissimus)
    Big-footed minute salamander (Thorius magnipes) McDiarmid minute salamander (Thorius munificus) Veracruz minute salamander (Thorius pennatulus)
    Papalo minute salamander (Thorius papaloae) Schmidt’s minute salamander (Thorius schmidti) Omiltemi minute salamander (Thorius omiltemi)
    San Martin minute salamander (Thorius narismagnus) Spotted minute salamander (Thorius spilogaster) Lower Cerro minute salamander (Thorius pulmonaris)
    Long-tailed minute salamander (Thorius longicaudus) Smith’s minute salamander (Thorius smithi) Pine-dwelling minute salamander (Thorius pinicola)
    Taylor’s minute salamander (Thorius troglodytes) Heroic minute salamander (Thorius tlaxiacus) Green salamander (Aneides aeneus)
    Sacramento Mountain salamander (Aneides hardii) Sardinian salamander (Atylodes genei) Black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus)
    Santa Cruz black salamander (Aneides niger) Clouded salamander (Aneides ferreus) Wandering salamander (Aneides vagrans)
    Arboreal salamander (Aneides lugubris) Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti) Korean crevice salamander (Karsenia koreana)
    Monte Albo cave salamander (Speleomantes flavus) Ambrosi’s cave salamander (Speleomantes ambrosii) Imperial cave salamander (Speleomantes imperialis)
    Supramonte cave salamander (Speleomantes supramontis) Italian cave salamander (Speleomantes italicus) Strinati’s cave salamander (Speleomantes strinatii)
    Berry Cave salamander (Gyrinophilus gulolineatus) Spring salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus) Tennessee cave salamander (Gyrinophilus palleucus)
    West Virginia spring salamander (Gyrinophilus subterraneus) Mud salamander (Pseudotriton montanus) Red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber)
    Midland mud salamander (Pseudotriton diastictus) Patch-nosed salamander (Urspelerpes brucei) Many-lined salamander (Stereochilus marginatus)
    Dusky Salamanders
    golden shovel-nosed salamander (Desmognathus aureatus) Apalachicola dusky salamander (Desmognathus apalachicolae) Golden shovel-nosed salamander (Desmognathus aureatus)
    Seepage salamander (Desmognathus aeneus) Ouachita dusky salamander (Desmognathus brimleyorum) Spotted dusky salamander (Desmognathus conanti)
    Dwarf blackbelly salamander (Desmognathus folkertsi) Cumberland dusky salamander (Desmognathus abditus) Southern dusky salamander (Desmognathus auriculatus)
    Mountain dusky salamander (Desmognathus carolinensis) Imitator salamander (Desmognathus imitator) Northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus)
    Ocoee dusky salamander (Desmognathus ocoee) Seal salamander (Desmognathus monticola) Blue Ridge dusky salamander (Desmognathus orestes)
    Shovelnose salamander (Desmognathus marmoratus) Northern pygmy salamander (Desmognathus organi) Allegheny Mountain dusky salamander (Desmognathus ochrophaeus)
    Flat-headed salamander (Desmognathus planiceps) Santeetlah dusky salamander

    (Desmognathus santeetlah)

    Blackbelly salamander (Desmognathus quadramaculatus)
    Black Mountain salamander (Desmognathus welteri) Pygmy salamander (Desmognathus wrighti) Ensatinas (Ensatina eschscholtzii)
    Woodland Salamanders
    Scott Bar salamander (Plethodon asupak) Caddo Mountain salamander (Plethodon caddoensis) Western slimy salamander (Plethodon albagula)
    Atlantic Coast slimy salamander (Plethodon chlorobryonis) Blue Ridge gray-cheeked salamander (Plethodon amplus) Tellico salamander (Plethodon aureolus)
    Cheoah Bald salamander (Plethodon cheoah) Atlantic Coast slimy salamander (Plethodon chlorobryonis) Chattahoochee slimy salamander (Plethodon chattahoochee)
    White-spotted slimy salamander (Plethodon cylindraceus) Northern zigzag salamander (Plethodon dorsalis) Dixie Cavern salamander (Plethodon dixi)
    Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus) Red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) Northern ravine salamander (Plethodon electromorphus)
    Peaks of Otter salamander (Plethodon hubrichti) Northern slimy salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) Valley and ridge salamander (Plethodon hoffmani)
    Blacksburg salamander (Plethodon jacksoni) Coeur d’Alene salamander (Plethodon idahoensis) Louisiana slimy salamander (Plethodon kisatchie)
    Kiamichi slimy salamander (Plethodon kiamichi) Southern gray-cheeked salamander (Plethodon metcalfi) Cumberland Plateau salamander (Plethodon kentucki)
    Jordan’s red-cheeked salamander (Plethodon jordani) Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli) Cheat Mountain salamander (Plethodon nettingi)
    Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) Ocmulgee slimy salamander (Plethodon ocmulgee) Mississippi slimy salamander (Plethodon mississippi)
    South Mountain gray-cheeked salamander (Plethodon meridianus) Northern gray-cheeked salamander (Plethodon montanus) Yellow-spotted woodland salamander (Plethodon pauleyi)
    Rich Mountain salamander (Plethodon ouachitae) Ravine salamander (Plethodon richmondi) Pigeon Mountain salamander (Plethodon petraeus)
    Savannah slimy salamander (Plethodon savannah) Cow knob salamander (Plethodon punctatus) Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah)
    Southern Appalachian salamander (Plethodon teyahalee) Red-legged salamander (Plethodon shermani) Sequoyah slimy salamander (Plethodon sequoyah)
    Big Levels salamander (Plethodon sherando) Southern red-backed salamander (Plethodon serratus) Van Dyke’s salamander (Plethodon vandykei)
    South Carolina slimy salamander (Plethodon variolatus) Southern zigzag salamander (Plethodon ventralis) Webster’s salamander (Plethodon websteri)
    Siskiyou Mountains salamander (Plethodon stormi) Wehrle’s salamander (Plethodon wehrlei) Western redback salamander (Plethodon vehiculum)
    Shenandoah Mountain salamander (Plethodon virginia) Yonahlossee salamander (Plethodon yonahlossee) Weller’s salamander (Plethodon welleri)
    Slender Salamanders
    Hell Hollow slender salamander (Batrachoseps diabolicus) California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuatus) San Gabriel slender salamander (Batrachoseps gabrieli)
    Inyo Mountains slender salamander (Batrachoseps campi) Sequoia slender salamander (Batrachoseps kawia) Gregarious slender salamander (Batrachoseps gregarius)
    San Simeon slender salamander (Batrachoseps incognitus) Gabilan Mountains slender salamander (Batrachoseps gavilanensis) San Lucia Mountains slender salamander (Batrachoseps luciae)
    Lesser slender salamander

    (Batrachoseps minor)

    Pacific slender salamander (Batrachoseps pacificus) Garden slender salamander

    (Batrachoseps major)

    King’s River slender salamander (Batrachoseps regius) Kern Canyon slender salamander (Batrachoseps simatus) Relictual slender salamander (Batrachoseps relictus)
    Tehachapi slender salamander (Batrachoseps stebbinsi) Black-bellied slender salamander (Batrachoseps nigriventris) Fairview slender salamander

    (Batrachoseps bramei)

    Greenhorn Mountains slender salamander

    (Batrachoseps altasierrae)

    Kern Plateau slender salamander (Batrachoseps robustus) Oregon slender salamander

    (Batrachoseps wrighti)

    Web-toed Salamanders
    Mount Lyell salamander (Hydromantes platycephalus) Shasta salamander (Hydromantes shastae) Limestone salamander (Hydromantes brunus)
    Brook Salamanders
    Salado Springs salamander (Eurycea chisholmensis) Three-lined salamander (Eurycea guttolineata) Southern two-lined salamander (Eurycea cirrigera)
    Chamberlain’s dwarf salamander (Eurycea chamberlaini) Northern two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata) Junaluska salamander (Eurycea junaluska)
    Brown-backed salamander (Eurycea aquatica) Spotted-tail salamander (Eurycea lucifuga) Cascade Caverns salamander (Eurycea latitans)
    Many-ribbed salamander (Eurycea multiplicata) Texas salamander (Eurycea neotenes) San Marcos salamander (Eurycea nana)
    Long-tailed salamander (Eurycea longicauda) Fern bank salamander (Eurycea pterophila) Blanco blind salamander (Eurycea robusta)
    Texas blind salamander (Eurycea rathbuni) Georgetown salamander (Eurycea naufragia) Dwarf four-toed salamander (Eurycea quadridigitata)
    Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae) Grotto salamander (Eurycea spelaea) Ouachita streambed salamander (Eurycea subfluvicola)
    Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sosorum) Georgia blind salamander (Eurycea wallacei) Comal blind salamander (Eurycea tridentifera)
    Austin blind salamander (Eurycea waterlooensis) Valdina Farms salamander (Eurycea troglodytes) Blue Ridge two-lined salamander (Eurycea wilderae)
    Oklahoma salamander (Eurycea tynerensis)

    Olms and Mudpuppies (Family Proteidae)

    Olm (Proteidae anguinus) Common mudpuppy (Proteidae maculosus) Red River mudpuppy (Proteidae louisianensis)
    Neuse River waterdog (Proteidae lewisi) Alabama waterdog (Proteidae alabamensis) Gulf Coast waterdog (Proteidae beyeri)
    Dwarf waterdog (Proteidae punctatus)

    Torrent Salamanders (Family Rhyacotritonidae)

    Olympic torrent salamander (Rhyacotritonidae olympicus) Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotritonidae variegatus) Cascade torrent salamander (Rhyacotritonidae cascadae)
    Columbia torrent salamander (Rhyacotritonidae kezeri)

    Sirens (Family Sirenidae)

    Northern dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus striatus) Southern dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus axanthus) Lesser siren (Siren intermedia)
    Reticulated siren (Siren reticulata) Greater siren (Siren lacertina)


    Habitat: Where Do Salamanders Live

    Some salamanders spend part of their adult life in water, while others are completely terrestrials as adults, though all of them need water to lay eggs and reproduce. Most species prefer cold, moist environments, living near rivers, lakes, ponds, or around marshes so they can have quick access to water.

    They are often most active during the night as the heat and light during daytime can dehydrate them quickly, especially the land dwelling salamanders.

    Do Salamanders Hibernate

    Since all amphibians are cold-blooded, terrestrial salamanders do need to hibernate in burrows or under leaf debris during winter to keep themselves from freezing. Aquatic species may remain active underwater, as the temperature is always higher in deep waters. Some have been spotted to stay active in the depths of lakes and ponds even after their surface is frozen over.

    Diet: What Do Salamanders Eat

    These carnivorous animals feed on anything they can catch, from insects like beetles, and crickets, spiders, worms, maggots, and flies to snails and other mollusks. Larger species may even eat small frogs, and other smaller salamanders. The diet of salamander larvae include small tadpoles, water insects and other aquatic invertebrates.

    Some populations may display cannibalistic habits as well, specifically during their larval phase, when they can feed on smaller larvae of the same species.

    Salamanders have small sharp teeth on both their upper and lower jaws that help them snatch and kill their prey. Even their larva has tiny conical teeth. Adults make use of their sticky tongue to capture insects.

    Reproduction and Life Cycle

    Mating can take place either in water or on land, and fertilization of the eggs is generally internal, but may be external in some species. After mating, the females lay small to large batches of tiny eggs in a concealed site in a quiet waterbody, like under a rock, or on the lower surfaces of water plants. The parents, usually the female, protect the eggs till they hatch.

    Like in all other amphibians, the larval development occurs entirely in water, with the larvae breathing through gills till they complete their metamorphosis, when they lose the gills, and grow legs to move to land. Though some salamanders, like the axolotl, retain their gills and remain aquatic even when they become adults.

    Lifespan: How Long Do They Live

    Their lifespan varies from just a few years to 20-30 years, depending on their species, population, and size. Chinese giant salamander, the longest living member of this order, has an average lifespan of 50-60 years.

    Predators and Threats

    Medium to large fish, frogs, larger salamanders, snakes, turtles, birds of prey, rodents, and larger mammals are all known to prey on the small to medium species. Giant salamanders do not have many enemies in the wild, as they are often the apex predators in their food chain.

    Apart from habitat loss and capture for the pet trade, additional threats like harvesting for food, and extensive use in scientific experiments are pushing many species, like the axolotl, on the brink of extinction.

    Can Salamanders be Dangerous to Humans

    Salamanders are generally not harmful for humans, as they tend to run away in case of a confrontation. However, being aggressive hunters by nature, they may bite when cornered, like the arboreal salamander. They have special poison secreting glands that release a kind of toxin when handled, which can cause skin irritation. Still, there is no serious threat unless you actually swallow a salamander, which may be poisonous.

    The toxic skin secretion, while not seriously harmful in most cases, can cause vomiting in dogs if ingested.

    Interesting Facts

    • Salamanders have smooth, moist skin with no scales, which is an easy way of identifying them, and distinguishing from lizards whose bodies are always covered in scales.
    • These amphibians are believed to be able to withstand extreme colds, with some species like the Siberian salamander, being able to remain frozen for years and then become active again upon thawing.
    • One Chinese giant salamander found in a cave in China was claimed to be over 200 years old, making it the longest-living specimen of this order. However, this fact needs further verification to make it reliable.
    • As a defense mechanism, some salamanders can flex their muscles in a way that their spiny ribs protrude out the sides of their body and into the flesh of any animal trying to catch it.


    Southern Two-lined Salamander
    Jollyville Plateau Salamander
    Tennessee Cave Salamander
    Cheat Mountain Salamander
    Northern Two-lined Salamander
    Jemez Mountain Salamander
    Red Hills Salamander
    Barton Springs Salamander
    Seal Salamander
    Austin Blind Salamander
    Northern Dusky Salamander
    Many-lined Salamander
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