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Toads

Frogs with leathery and warty skin, crests in the under eye-zone, and small legs are considered toads. The common factor being they all belongs to the Bufonidae family. The external glands known as parotoid glands are typically covered by the skin bumps that toads exhibit. These amphibians are common in every continent, except Antarctica. Some toads have poison glands as part of their defense mechanism.



    Adenomus or Dwarf Toad

    Kandyan dwarf toad Kelaart’s toad

    Altiphrynoide or Ethiopian Toad

    Malcolm’s Ethiopian Toads Osgood’s Ethiopian Toad

    Amazophrynella

    Amazophrynella amazonicola Amazophrynella bilinguis Amazophrynella bokermanni
    Amazophrynella javierbustamantei Amazophrynella manaos Amazophrynella matses
    Amazophrynella minuta Amazophrynella vote  

    Amietophrynus

    Blanford’s/Ethiopian Toad Asmara toad Dead-leaf/Braun’s toad
    Buchner’s Toad Oban/Cameroon Toad Bata Marsh Toad
    Tingi Hills Toad Ivory Coast Toad Amietophrynus djohongensis
    Sooty/Shaba Province Toad Somber/Angola Toad Olive/Eastern Olive/Northern Mottled/Garman’s  Toad
    French Congo Toad Square-Marked/ Guttural/Lobatsi/African Common Toad Damietta/Nile Delta Toad
    Kerinyaga/Keith’s Toad Kisolo/Montane Golden Toad Lake Langano Toad
    High Tropical Forest Toad Yellow Swamp/Pweto Toad/Lemaire’s Toad Striped/Flat-backed/Hallowell’s Toad
    Moorish/Pantherine/Moroccan/Mauritanian/Berber Toad Western leopard/Panther/Southern Panther Toad Snoring/August/Eastern Leopard/Gleniffer Toad
    Perret’s Toad Power’s/Kimberley Toad Raucous/ Ranger’s/ Kei Road Toad
    Merera Toad African/Square-marked/African Bouncing/Reuss’s/Egyptian/African Common Toad Steindachner’s Toad
    African giant toad/Cameroon toad/Congo toad/Zaire toad Subspecies – A. s. chevalieri, A. s. superciliaris
    Amietophrynus taiensis Togo Toad Fernando Po toad
    Lake Turkana Toad Urungu Toad Villier’s Toad
    Lake Victoria/Banded/Degen’s Toad Savannah/Waza/ Subsaharan/ Subdesert Toad

    Anaxyrus

    American toad Subspecies: Eastern American Toad, Dwarf American Toad, Hudson Bay Toad
    Wyoming Toad
    Western Toad Subspecies: Boreal Toad, California Toad
    Arroyo Toad Yosemite Toad Great Plains Toad
    Texas/ Plateau Toad Black Toad
    North American Green Toad Subspecies: Eastern Green Toad, Western Green Toad
    Fowler’s Toad Canadian Toad Houston Toad
    Little Mexican Toad Southwestern Toad Arizona Toad
    Amargosa Toad Baird’s/Red spotted Toad Oak Toad
    Sonoran Green Toad Texas Toad Southern Toad
    Dixie Valley Toad
    Woodhouse’s Toad Subspecies: Southwestern Woodhouse’s Toad, Rocky Mountain Toad, East Texas Toad

    Ansonia or Stream Toads

    Whitebelly stream toad Spiny slender toad Endau stream toad
    North Borneo Stream/Slender toad Ansonia glandulosa Mesilau/Mesilau Stream Toad
    Kadamaian stream toad Inthanon stream toad Ansonia jeetsukumarani
    Kra stream toad Sambas stream/ bornean rainbow toad Ansonia latiffi
    Ansonia latirostra Matang Stream/Cricket-voiced/Brown Slender Toad Long-fingered Stream/Slender Toad
    Mossy stream toad Malayan stream/slender toad, pigmy false toad Mcgregor’s stream/river toad
    Tiny stream/dwarf slender/minute slender toad Muller’s stream toad Penang stream toad
    Luidan stream toad Siamese stream toad Precious stream toad
    Kina balu stream/ spiny slender toad Gracile slender toad Ansonia thinthinae
    Pulo tioman stream/slender toad Gunung mulu stream toad Widow slender/murud black toad

    Atelopus or Stubfoot Toads/Harlequin Toads

    Andes stubfoot toad Angelito stubfoot toad Ardila’s stubfoot toad
    Atelopus arsyecue Arthur’s Stubfoot Toad Rio Pescado Stubfoot Toad
    Atelopus barbotini Azuay stubfoot toad Boulenger’s stubfoot toad
    Rio Carauta stubfoot toad Venezuelan Yellow Frog/ La Carbonera Stubfoot Toad Guajira Stubfoot toad/ Carrikeri Harlequin Frog
    Toad mountain harlequin/ darien stubfoot toad Chiriqui harlequin frog/ lewis’ stubfoot toad Chocó stubfoot toad
    Rio Faisanes stubfoot toad Veragua stubfoot toad/ Rancho Grande harlequin frog Atelopus dimorphus
    Huila stubfoot toad
    Elegant stubfoot toad Subspecies: Elegant Stubfoot Toad
    Atelopus epikeisthos Carabaya stubfoot toad Malvasa stubfoot toad
    Atelopus eusebiodiazi Atelopus exiguus Atelopus famelicus
    Forest stubfoot toad Cayenne stubfoot toad Central Coast stubfoot toad
    Antado stubfoot toad Pirri Range stubfoot toad/ Pirri harlequin frog Guanujo stubfoot toad
    La Guitarra stubfoot toad Morona-Santiago stubfoot toad Quito stubfoot/ Jambato toad
    Atelopus laetissimus Limosa harlequin frog El Tambo stubfoot toad
    Longnose stubfoot toad/ longnose sharlequin frog/ scrawny stubfoot-toad Atelopus lozanoi Lynch’s stubfoot toad
    Atelopus mandingues Mindo stubfoot toad Colombian stubfoot toad
    Mittermeier’s stubfoot toad Hernandez’s stubfoot toad Mucubaji stubfoot toad
    La Arboleda stubfoot toad San Lorenzo harlequin frog Atelopus nanay
    Gualecenita stubfoot toad Niceforo’s stubfoot toad Atelopus onorei
    Atelopus orcesi Rednose stubfoot toad Schmidt’s stubfoot toad/ Oyacachi jambato toad
    Andersson’s stubfoot toad Pataz stubfoot toad San Isidro stubfoot toad
    Peru stubfoot toad Peters’ stubfoot/ Peters’ jambato toad Atelopus petriruizi
    Painted stubfoot toad Pinango stubfoot toad/ green and red venter harlequin toad Napo Stubfoot Toad/ Flat-Spined Atelopus/ Planispina’s Harlequin Frog
    Atelopus pulcher Atelopus pyrodactylus Atelopus quimbaya
    Atelopus reticulatus Anori stubfoot toad Upper Amazon stubfoot toad
    Pass stubfoot toad Atelopus sernai Atelopus simulates
    Atelopus siranus Sonsón stubfoot toad Cloud forest stubfoot toad/ scarlet harlequin toad
    Pebas stubfoot toad Condoto stubfoot toad Bogota stubfoot toad
    Venezuela stubfoot toad Three-colored stubfoot toad Veragoa stubfoot toad
    Walker’s stubfoot toad Panamanian golden frog  

    Blythophryne or Andaman Bush Toads

    Blythophryne beryet    

    Bufo

    Bufo aspinius Central Formosa toad/Bankor toad Common toad/European toad
    Chusan Island toad/Asiatic toad Japanese toad Bufo kabischi
    Gansu toad/Minshan toad Tibetan toad Honshū toad/Japanese stream toad
    Qinghai Lake toad/Round-warted toad Caucasian toad Bufo wolongensis
    Ejia toad/Ailao toad Arabian toad Beddome’s toad
    Kempholey toad/Short-nosed toad/Rao’s pale brown toad Earless toad Oman toad
    Dodson’s toad Malabar toad/Gûnther’s toad Humbali Village toad/Koyna toad/Chrome-yellow toad
    Berber toad/Pantherine toad/ Moroccan toad Olive toad/Baluchistan coastal toad/Makran toad Tonkin toad
    Indian toad/Ridged toad/Timber forest toad Shaata Gardens toad/Penton’s toad Ferguson’s toad
    Scortecci’s toad Silent Valley toad/South Indian hill toad Stejneger’s toad/Korean toad/Water toad
    Assam toad/Indus Valley toad/ Marbled toad Stuart’s toad Sumatra toad
    Balletto’s toad Pulo Weh toad Bufo apolobambicus
    Paramo toad Abra Malaga toad Eden Harbour toad
    Colorado River toad Bufo aucoinae Bocourt’s toad
    Campbell’s forest toad Dwarf toad Mountain toad
    Southern round-gland toad Evergreen toad Large-crested toad
    Northern round-gland toad Pico Blanco toad Jeweled toad
    Holdridge’s toad Jalapa toad Gunther’s tropical toad
    Bufo leucomyos Yellow toad Large-crested toad
    Marbled toad Sinaloa toad Dark green toad
    Gulf Coast toad Pine toad Monte Verde golden toad
    Almirante Trail toad Confusing toad Bufo pisinnus
    Bufo porteri Bufo signifer Bufo spiculatus
    Volcan Tacana coad Bufo tutelarius Bufo valliceps
    Schwartz’s Caribbean toad Cope’s Caribbean toad/Cuban toad Dominican Caribbean toad
    Bufo fractus Bufo fustiger Gunther’s Caribbean toad
    Gundlach’s Caribbean toad Lowland Caribbean toad Stejneger’s Caribbean toad
    Tschudi’s Caribbean toad Cuban Caribbean toad Malayan giant toad
    Giant river toad/Borneo river toad Beira’s toad Bufo damaranus
    Dombe toad Transvaal dwarf toad Mossamedes toad/Grandison’s toad
    Okahandja toad/Hoesch’s toad Khwai River toad/Kavanga toad Lugh toad
    Parker’s toad African dwarf toad/pygmy toad Balearic green toad
    Batura toad Bufo boulengeri Tiznit toad
    Ladakh toad/Lataste’s toad Bufo luristanicus Danata toad/Middle Asiatic toad
    Bufo pewzowi Swat green toad Tengger Desert toad/Radde’s toad
    Sicilian green toad Pakistan toad/Iranian toad Bufo turanensis
    Bufo variabilis European green toad Bufo zamdaensis
    Bufo zugmayeri Andersson’s toad Colombian giant toad/Blomberg’s toad
    Bufo caeruleostictus Cundinamarca toad Spotted toad/smooth-sided toad
    Truando toad Choco toad Werner’s toad
    Amatola toad Sand toad/Common Cape toad Karroo toad/Gariep toad
    Inyanga toad Paradise toad  

    Bufoides

    Mawblang toad/ rock toad/ Khasi Hills toad Bufoides kempi

    Capensibufo or Cape toads/Mountain Toddlets

    Rose’s mountain toad/ Cape mountain toad/ Rose’s mountain toadlet/ striped mountain toad/ Rose’s toad/ Muizenberg Cape toad Tradouw mountain toad

    Churamiti

    Churamiti maridadi  

    Incilius

    Sonoran Desert toad/ Colorado River toad Incilius luetkenii Incilius aucoinae
    Incilius macrocristatus Incilius aurarius Incilius majordomus
    Incilius bocourti Incilius marmoreus Incilius campbelli
    Incilius mazatlanensis Incilius canaliferus Incilius cavifrons
    Incilius chompipe Incilius coccifer Evergreen Toad
    Large-crested toad Incilius cycladen Incilius epioticus
    Incilius fastidiosus Incilius gemmifer Incilius guanacaste
    Holdridge’s toad Incilius ibarrai Incilius karenlipsae
    Incilius leucomyos Incilius mccoyi Incilius melanochlorus
    Coastal plains toad or Incilius nebulifer Incilius occidentalis Monte Verde toad/Alajuela toad/ Orange toad
    Almirante Trail toad Incilius perplexus Incilius pisinnus
    Incilius porteri Incilius signifer Incilius spiculatus
    Incilius tacanensis Incilius tutelarius Incilius valliceps

    Dendrophryniscus or Tree Toads

    Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae Dendrophryniscus organensis Dendrophryniscus brevipollicatus
    Dendrophryniscus proboscideus Dendrophryniscus carvalhoi Dendrophryniscus krausae
    Dendrophryniscus leucomystax Dendrophryniscus skuki Dendrophryniscus stawiarskyi
    Dendrophryniscus oreites    

    Didynamipus

    Four-digit toad  

    Duttaphrynus

    Yala toad Duttaphrynus crocus Duttaphrynus himalayanus
    Himalayan toad Kotagama’s dwarf toad Asian common toad/ Asian black-spined toad/ Asian toad/ Black-spectacled toad/ Common Sunda toad/ Javanese toad
    Small-eared toad/ Southern hill toad Noellert’s toad

    Epidalea

    Natterjack toad  

    Frostius

    Frostius erythrophthalmus Frostius pernambucensis

    Ingerophrynus

    Crested toad/double crested toad Sulawesian toad Benkulen toad
    Malayan dwarf toad Bony-headed toad Gollum’s toad
    Ingerophrynus kumquat Ingerophrynus ledongensis Big-eared toad
    Lesser Malacca toad Philippine toad Greater Malacca toad

    Laurentophryne

    Parker’s tree toad  

    Leptophryne

    Java tree toad/Bourbon toad Indonesia tree toad

    Melanophryniscus or South American Redbelly Toads

    Melanophryniscus admirabilis Melanophryniscus alipioi Melanophryniscus atroluteus
    Melanophryniscus biancae Melanophryniscus cambaraensis Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis
    Melanophryniscus devincenzii Melanophryniscus dorsalis Melanophryniscus estebani
    Melanophryniscus fulvoguttatus Melanophryniscus klappenbachi Melanophryniscus krauczuki
    Melanophryniscus langonei Melanophryniscus macrogranulosus Melanophryniscus milanoi
    Melanophryniscus montevidensis Maldonada redbelly toad Melanophryniscus pachyrhynus
    Melanophryniscus paraguayensis Melanophryniscus peritus Melanophryniscus rubriventris
    Melanophryniscus sanmartini Melanophryniscus setiba Melanophryniscus simplex
    Melanophryniscus spectabilis Melanophryniscus stelzneri Melanophryniscus tumifrons
    Melanophryniscus vilavelhensis Melanophryniscus xanthostomus  

    Mertensophryne or Chirinda Forest/ Snouted Frogs/ Forest Toads

    Mashonaland toad Mrora forest toad Dar es Salaam toad
    Lonberg’s toad Mahenge toad Kankunde toad
    Loveridges snouted toad Mocquards toad Nairobi toad
    Nyika dwarf toad Schmidt’s snouted frog Black-chested dwarf toad
    Usambara forest toad Uzungwe toad

    Metaphryniscus

    Metaphryniscus sosae

    Nectophryne

    African tree toad Bates’s tree toad

    Nectophrynoides or African Live-bearing Toads

    Kihansi spray toad secret tree toad frontier forest toad
    smooth forest toad Nectophrynoides laticeps minute tree toad
    Nectophrynoides paulae Poynton’s forest toad pseudo forest toad
    Tornier’s Tree Toad Vestergaard’s forest toad Morogoro tree toad
    Uzungwe Scarp tree toad

    Nimbaphrynoides

    Nimbaphrynoides occidentalis Subspecies: Western Nimba toad/Mount Nimba viviparous toad, Liberia Nimba toad

    Oreophrynella or Bush Toad

    Oreophrynella cryptica Oreophrynella dendronastes Bolivar bush toad
    MacConnell’s bush toad Pebble toad Roraima black frog/Roraima bush toad
    Oreophrynella seegobini Oreophrynella vasquezi Oreophrynella weiassipuensis

    Osornophryne or Plump Toads

    Osornophryne angel Napo plump toad Peracca’s plump toad
    Osornophryne cofanorum Guacamayo plump toad Osornophryne occidentalis
    Herveo plump toad Osornophryne puruanta Osornophryne simpsoni
    Osornophryne sumacoensis Cannatella’s plump toad  

    Pedostibes or Asian Tree Toads

    Everett’s Asian tree toad Boulenger’s Asian tree toad Kemp’s Asian tree toad
    Spotted Asian tree toad Inger’s Asian tree toad Warty Asian tree toad

    Pelophryne or Flathead/Dwarf Toad

    White-striped flathead toad Pelophryne api Zamboanga flathead toad
    Gunther’s flathead toad Mindanao flathead toad Pelophryne linanitensis
    Black flathead toad Pelophryne murudensis Pelophryne penrissenensis
    Pelophryne rhopophilius Pelophryne saravacensis Saint Andrew’s cross toadlet

    Pseudepidalea

    Pseudepidalea balearica Pseudepidalea boulengeri Brongersma’s toad/Tiznit toad
    Ladakh toad Pseudepidalea luristanica Pseudepidalea oblonga
    Pseudepidalea pewzowi Pseudepidalea pseudoraddei Mongolian toad/piebald toad/ Siberian toad
    Sicilian green toad Iranian earless toad/ Pakistan Toad/Iranian Toad Pseudepidalea turanensis
    Pseudepidalea variabilis European green toad Pseudepidalea zamdaensis
    Pseudepidalea zugmayeri    

    Pseudobufo

    Pseudobufo subasper    

    Rhinella

    Rhinella abei Cordoba Toad Rhinella achavali
    Cerro Mali Beaked Toad Rhinella acutirostris Rhinella alata
    Rhinella amabilis Cochabamba Toad Mendoza Pass Toad
    Common Toad/Argentine Toad Rio Chili Toad Arunco/concepcion toad
    Vallenar Toad/Atacama Toad Rivero’s Toad Rhinella bergi
    Para Toad Horned Toad Rhinella chavin
    Rio Viejo Toad Rhinella cristinae Striped Toad
    Bom Jardim Toad Cope’s Toad Dorbigny’s Toad
    Bella Vista Toad Valle santiago beaked toad Carabaya toad
    Gallardo’s Toad Rio Grande Toad Common Lesser Toad
    Rhinella henseli Rhinella hoogmoedi Yellow Cururu Toad
    Inca Toad Rio Perene Toad Cururu Toad
    El Chape Toad Rhinella lescurei Peru Coast Toad
    Murri Beaked Toad Rhinella loba Santa Rita Beaked Toad
    Rhinella manu South American Common Toad Cane Toad
    Rhinella martyi Rhinella multiverrucosa Laguna Toad
    Colombian Beaked Toad Ocellated Toad Rhinella ornata
    Gray Toad Rhinella pombali Beaked Toad
    Rio Parahyba Toad Incachaca Toad Rhinella roqueana
    Mesopotamia Beaked Toad Rhinella rubescens Rusty Toad
    Rhinella ruizi Salta Toad Cururu Toad/Schneider’s Toad/Cururu Toad
    Rhinella scitula Rhinella sclerocephala Rhinella skuki
    Warty Toad/Huanuco Toad Rhinella stanlaii Falcon Toad
    Rhinella tacana Antioquia Beaked Toad Trueb’s Beaked Toad
    Alto Maranon Toad Veragua Toad Rhinella veredas
    Rhinella yunga  

    Sabahphrynus

    Sabah earless toad/Spotted Asian tree toad  

    Schismaderma

    African split-skin toad/ African red toad  

    Truebella

    Truebella skoptes Truebella tothastes  

    Werneria or Smalltongue Toads

    Bamboutos smalltongue toad Werneria iboundji Mertens’ smalltongue toad
    Buea smalltongue toad Werneria submontana Tandy’s smalltongue toad

    Wolterstorffina or Wolterstorff Toads

    Wolterstorffina chirioi Mount Oku Wolterstorff toad Cameroon Wolterstorff toad

    Xanthophryne

    Xanthophryne koynayensis Amboli toad  


    Habitat: What Kinds of Place They Live in

    Moist grassland and fields are common places for toads while tadpole or baby toads spend their initial phase in the water.

    Diet: What do Toads Eat

    Baby toads or tadpoles eat pinhead crickets, waxworms, grubs, mealworms while adult toads eat all these along with larvae, spiders, slugs, snails, lizards, and mice in the wild.

    Reproduction and Life Cycle

    Toads are oviparous meaning they are egg-laying. The eggs are all fertilized and laid in the water from where tadpoles hatch. Although in some species the egg are hatched inside the toads body and live young tadpoles are born directly through their mother.

    Threats and Predators

    Snakes, raccoons, herons, and hawks prey on toads while diving bugs and beetles are major threats and to tadpoles.

    Lifespan: How Long Do they Live

    Average lifespan of toads are 10-15 years, depending on the species.

    Interesting Facts

    • Toads swallow their food instead of chewing because they don’t have teeth.
    • They make themselves bigger by puffing their body in order to avoid getting caught by predators.
    • The word ‘Knot’ is used to describe a group of toads.


    Black Toad
    Houston Toad
    Western Toad
    Southern Toad
    Red Spotted Toad
    Boreal Toad
    Eastern Spadefoot
    Pebble Toad
    Gulf Coast Toad
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